carbon potential of steels case hardening metallurgy

An Introduction to Nitriding - ASM International

cal mystery, it remains the simplest of the case hardening techniques. content of the steel; the greater the carbon content, the more potential for the phase to form. As the temperature is further increased to the gamma case depth and surface metallurgy. Processing the steel at higher tempera-

Case Hardening trouble - Metal and Metallurgy engineering

Apr 20, 2016 · Typically the materials that are carbonized are low-carbon and alloy steels with initial carbon content ranging from 0.2 to 0.3%. The workpiece surface must be free from contaminants, such as oil oxides, alkaline solutions, which prevent or impede the diffusion of carbon Case Hardness - an overview ScienceDirect TopicsGears made of cast irons (ductile, malleable, and gray), and low-alloy and medium-carbon steels with 0.40.55% carbon content (i.e., AISI 4140, 4340, 1045, 4150, 1552, 5150) are commonly heat treated by induction hardening process. Alloy steels with more than 0.5% carbon are susceptible to cracking [1,41]. External spur and helical gears

Effect of Hardening Temperature and Stabilization on

Abstract- EN353 a low carbon case hardened steel also known as plain carbon alloy steel is one of the widely used steel. This study is based upon the dimensional stability of 5 standard dimensioned bushes of EN353. The 5 bushes are carburized and full annealed, followed by hardening at 760ºC, 800ºC, 820ºC, 840ºC, 860ºC. Hardening of Powder Metallurgy Parts 101Hardening of Powder Metallurgy Parts 101 Case hardening is typically performed in an integral quench furnace and is commonly referred to as a quench-and-temper process. Parts are gas carburized at about 1550°F in an atmosphere with a furnace carbon potential higher than the carbon content of the component being heat-treated. Then the parts

Intergranular Oxidation (IGO) / Intergranular Attack (IGA)

May 12, 2017 · The rate of diffusion of oxygen into a steel surface is dependent on the oxygen potential of the furnace atmosphere and the process variables (i.e. the depth of oxide penetration is influenced by case depth, time at carburizing temperature, carbon potential and the chemical composition of the steel Surface Carbon Content - an overview ScienceDirect TopicsThe carbon transfer coefficient is defined in European norm EN10052:1993 54 as:the transfer of a carbon mass from the carburising medium to the steel surface, through individual carbon molecules to the steel surface by the difference of potentials between carbon potential of medium, and the steel carbon potential at the surface at any given moment. The mass transfer stream of carbon from atmosphere to steel

Thermodynamical Simulation of Carbon Profiles and

Sergey Konovalov, Thomas Henke, Stefan Benke, Georg J. Schmitz, Markus Bambach and Ulrich Prahl, Modelling the Process Chain of Microalloyed Case Hardening Steel for Energy Efficient High Temperature Carburising, Proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), (223-228), (2011). US4202710A - Carburization of ferrous alloys - Google PatentsA method for carburizing low alloy steel having carbon content of no more than 0.5% employing two-step carburizing process. The method comprising pre-carburizing the steel in a carburizing atmosphere having a carbon potential of less than Acm to produce a carburized case having hypereutectoid composition, cooling the steel to transform the case into a bainite, pearlite or martensite structure

US4415378A - Case hardening method for steel parts

A method of case hardening surfaces of steel parts insures the presence of a relatively high percentage of untempered martensite within a case hardened depth of at least ten thousandths of an inch. The untempered martensite provides for a Rockwell C surface hardness in the range of 59 to 68, and promotes greater resistance to abrasion and deformation.Process of Carbonitriding Case-Hardening Steel Most carbonitrided gears are tempered at 190 to 205°C and still maintain case hardness of HRC 58. Tapping screws made of 1020 steel are tempered at 260° to 425°C. Carbonitriding is preferred, over carburising, particularly for complex shapes such as toothed gears, which have a tendency to warp.